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Many PVA glues come with a tag "Stronger than Wood". What minimum glue strength is the bench mark for this category, and which wood is taken for sampling for such a test.
Somebody will have a more scientific answer on how the adhesives industry actually executes this test.
But from a practical stand point if you were to (1) edge glue two boards with a typical PVA adhesive, (2) put them in a vice, and break them apart, you would see that the wood will have failed, and not the glue line.
That is provided you did a reasonably good job prepping the two mating surfaces, used enough clamping pressure, and allowed the glue to fully cure.You might see problems with wood that has not been dried properly, and or with certain tropical woods that are particularly oily.
But generally speaking with the vast majority of wood species the wood will fail rather than the glue line every time.
Truth is, almost all wood glues will pass Tirion's test (even Elmer's all-purpose white).
As far as I'm concerned, real test results are seen on the concrete floor below the glue-up area. Some glue blobs scrap off nice and easy while others take up bits of concrete with them.
The choice of glue really depends more on the specifics of the materials and application rather than "which glue is the strongest"
I reface kitchen cabinets and use veneer that comes with a 3M adhesive (already applied on it's back side ) on the cabinet face frames. At times I am asked to repair the damaged laminated edges and corners caused by others I have only found that I can scrape and chip off very small pieces at a time. Does anybody know an easier way to repair these areas?