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I have been searching the internet for an explanation on why to use biscuit joint to build a desk. I have come up empty handed, I was wondering if anyone could provide some incite as to why I should use them instead of a dowel or pocket screws.
Personal preference plays the largest role in choosing joinery methods. In other words, "go with what you know".
If you know biscuits, then they may be your best choice for applications appropriate to biscuits. If mortise and tenon is what you are familiar with, you may see everything needing a mortise and tenon.
My mentor told me that a 2 yr old with a hammer pretty much sees everything in the room as needing hammering. A kitchen shop, when doing the boss's office, will still make everything look like a kitchen.
Biscuit joints are much easier to execute than dowels, stronger than dowels and also stronger than pocket screws in many situations.
Desks can be built in all sorts of ways and have all sorts of joints, so it's hard to get more specific without knowing exactly which joints on what sort of desk you're talking about.
The purpose of a biscuit when edge joining two pieces is for alignment. It does not add strength to the joint, as the joint is 1-1/2 times stronger than the wood so the weak link in a well made joint is the wood. Likewise, dowels are for alignment. Further, the joint surface area is many times greater than a biscuit or dowel.
There are many desks, and table tops, made without either.
I agree with all posts on your subject matter. If it is a loose installation joint you are inquiring about then as one man said biscuits are the easiest and only serve for alignment. Most desk assemblies are break down pieces. For those breakdown joints use the biscuit alignment technique. As for your fixed joints, use joinery that will give you the strongest bond of long grain to long grain application, again as the wooddoc said, joinery is stronger than wood itself. Have a good one.